Illegal or uncontrolled dumping at outskirts and in the city indicates the municipal solid waste management situation in many low and middle countries. In contrast, technical concepts are developed and implemented for an environmentally sound municipal solid waste disposal in Germany. However, these concepts require a high technical and economical effort as well as level of knowledge. Germany spends less than one per cent of the gross domestic product for the present municipal solid waste management. In developing countries, this would be roughly equal to 10 per cent or more if German standards would be adapted one-by-one. Thus, limited financial resources but also the lack of knowledge obstructs a rapid improvement of present situation. A one-by-one implementation of German or European standards would be absurd under the present frame conditions. This applies for landfill concepts as well. [Hädrich, 2012]
Based on these facts, the present visualised decision support programme to design and evaluate adapted landfill concepts has been developed. It is oriented on the exiting guides and programmes acting as a decision support tool. Thus, it has to be seen as supplement to these guides, especially to the technical design of landfill concepts. The rating system supports the generation of different individual landfill concepts and enables its comparison to the reference scenario "open dumping" as well as among each other.
The programme is based on the multibarrier principle that considers several barriers to protect the environment – beginning with pre-treatment up to emission treatment. The cost-effectiveness-analysis forms the methodological foundation. The rating system illustrates the effectiveness of the different considered barriers on impacts like fire or drift, landfill gas and leachate, whereas latter both are quantitatively assessed by means of a carbon load balance. The individual definable waste composition – to estimate the emission-relevant carbon potential – the climatic conditions in form of estimations of precipitation and evapotranspiration as well as the resulting emissions represent the system boundaries. The specific direct primary energy and space demand illustrate the technical effort for implementation.
The programme provides the foundation to design stepped, appropriate and professionally assessed landfill concepts. It clarifies and illustrates inter alia the interdependencies between the effectiveness of the individual barriers and the local conditions as well as between the individual barriers themselves. In this sense, the programme can be used in decision-making processes to form the background for continuative decisions or measures. It can be used as learning tool as well to gain knowledge about these interdependencies.
Hädrich, G.: "Efficiency analysis of landfill concepts for low and middle-income countries – A visualised decision support programme". Dissertation at the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. Manuskripte zur Abfallwirtschaft. Rhombos-Verlag, Berlin, 2012